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State advantages of jet propulsion over other systems.

Advantages of jet propulsion – 1. Higher mechanical efficiency due to absence of reciprocating parts. 2. The weight of gas turbine per kW power developed is low since the working pressures are low requiring lighter construction. 3. Can produce much more power at much higher altitudes where drag is less so higher speeds are possible and they are more efficient. 4. Reliability is one of the elements of success for jet engines. They only have a couple of moving parts and almost no vibration.

State advantages of closed cycle gas turbine.

Advantages of closed cycle gas turbine:

(i) It has higher thermal efficiency for the same minimum and maximum temperature limits and for the same pressure ratio.

(ii) Since the heating is external, any kind of fuel even solid fuel having low calorific value may be used.

(iii) There is no corrosion due to circulation of combustion product.

(iv) As the system is a closed one there is no loss of the working fluid.

(v) The size of the turbine will be smaller compared to an open cycle gas turbine of the same output.

What are the effects of detonation in I.C. engine ?

Effects of detonation (1) Noise – As intensity of detonation increases, the sound intensity increases & it is harmful. (2) Mechanical damage – shock waves are so violent that it may cause mechanical damage like breaking of piston. It increases the rate of wear erosion of piston. (3) Pre-ignition – Due to local overheating of spark plug & this pre-ignition increases detonation. (4) Power output & efficiency decreases - Power output & thermal efficiency decreases due to abnormal combustion.

State effects of pollutants in exhaust gases of petrol engine.

The major air pollutants emitted by petrol engines are CO2, CO, HC, NOx, SO2, smoke & lead vapour. 

Effect of CO:

Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin forming carboy hemoglobin, which reduces oxygen carrying capacity of blood.

1. This leads to laziness, exhaustion of body & headache. 2. Prolong exposure can even leads to death. 3. It also affects cardiovascular system, thereby causing heart problem

Effect of CO2: Causes respiratory disorder & suffocation.

What is supercharging ? State advantages of supercharging.

Superchargers are pressure boosting devices (compressors) which increase the pressure of the air before inletting it get into cylinder of the internal combustion engine, and the process of increasing the pressure OR forcing more air to get into engine is called as supercharging. This gives each intake cycle of the engine more oxygen, letting it burn more fuel and do more work, thus increasing power.

Draw turning moment diagram for four stroke petrol engine and explain it in brief.


During suction stroke, negative loop is formed as pressure inside engine cylinder is less than atmospheric pressure. During compression stroke, work is done on gases therefore higher negative loop is formed. During expansion or power stroke, fuel burn & gases expand therefore large positive loop is formed & during this stroke we get work output. During exhaust stroke, work is done on the gas to expel it out of cylinder, hence negative loop is formed.


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