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## State four examples of ergonomic considerations in the design of a lathe machine.

Ergonomics consideration in the design of Lathe machine Any 4 1) The controls on lathe should be easily accessible and properly positioned. 2) the control operation should involve minimum motions. 3) Height of lathe should be match with worker for operation 4)Lathe machine should make less noise during operation. 5) force& power capacity required in turning the wheel as per operation or human being can apply normally. 6) should get required accuracy in operation.

## Write the design procedure of knuckle joint.

Design of Knuckle joint Failure of rod in tension

## Prove that for a square key sc = 2t where sc = crushing stress t = shear stress.

## Explain why bolts of uniform strength are preferred. Draw sketches of two different types of bolts of uniform strength

bolts of uniform strength: if a shank dia.is reduced to a core dia.as shown in fig. the stress become same through out the length of the bolt. Hence impact energy is distributed uniformly throughout the bolt length, thus relieving the threaded portion of high stress. The bolt in this way becomes stronger and lighter. This type of bolt is known as bolt of uniform strength.Another method of obtaining the bolt of uniform strength is shown in fig.in this method, instead of reducing the shank dia.an axial hole is drilled through the head down to

## State the ‘Lewis equation’ for spur gear design. State SI unit of each term in the equation.

Lewis equation: WT = σw.b.π.m.y, WT= Tangential load acting at the tooth in N σw= bending stress in N/mm2 b= width of the gear face in mm m= module in mm y= lewis form factor.

## Design single cotter joint to transmit 200 kN. Allowable stresses for the material are 75 MPa in tension and 50 MPa in shear.

## State the composition of the materials 30 Ni 16 Cr5, 40C8, FeE230 X15Cr25Ni 12

30 Ni 16 Cr5 : alloy steel carbon 0.3% of average, Nickel 16%, chromium 5% 40C8 : Plain carbon steel carbon 0.4% of average, manganese 0.8% FeE230 : Steel with yield strength of 230N/mm2

X15Cr25Ni12 : high alloy steel carbon 0.15% of average, chromium 25%, Nickel 12%,

## State two applications each of cotter joint and knuckle joint.

Applications of cotter joint: cotter foundation bolt, big end of the connecting rod of a steam engine, joining piston rod with cross head, joining two rods with a pipe Applications of knuckle joint: link of bicycle chain, tie bar of roof truss, link of suspension bridge, valve mechanism, fulcrum of lever, joint for rail shifting mechanism

## State applications of maximum shear stress theory and principal normal stress theory

(i) Applications of maximum shear stress theory : for ductile material , crank shaft, propeller shafts , c frames (ii) Applications of maximum principle normal stress theory : for brittle material , machine spindle, machine beds , c frames, overhang crank