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Explain construction and working of ice plant with neat sketch.

The main cycle used for ice plant is vapor compression cycle with ammonia as the refrigerant in primary circuit and brine solution in secondary circuit. Brine solution takes heat from water in secondary circuit and delivers the heat to ammonia in primary circuit. Thus, the indirect method of cooling is used in ice plant. In secondary circuit brine is cooled in evaporator and then it is circulated around the can which contains water. The heat is extracted from the water in the can and is given to the brine.

Explain working of 4 stroke S.I. engine with neat sketch.

1. Suction stroke: Suction stroke starts when piston is at top dead center and about to move downwards. During suction stroke inlet valve is open and exhaust valve is closed. Due to low pressure created by the motion of the piston towards bottom dead center, the charge consisting of fresh air mixed with the fuel is drawn into cylinder. At the end of suction stroke the inlet valve closes.

List the additives of Lubricant used in S.I. engine and state their advantages.

Role of following lubricant additives (one mark each) 1. Zinc ditinophosphate: - Zinc ditinophosphate serves as an anti – oxidant and anticorrosive additive.

2. Fatty acids: - This type of additives prevents rusting of ferrous engine parts during and form acidic moisture accumulation during cold engine operation.

3. Organic Acids: - This type of additives improves the detergent action of lubricating oil.

4. Ester: - To lower the pour point of lubricating oil.

5. Silicon polymers: - This additive serves as Antifoam Agent.

Draw and explain Battery ignition system.

Battery Ignition system : I t consists of six or twelve volt battery, ignition switch,induction coil, circuit breaker condenser and distributor. All the circuit parts are shown in figure. One terminal of battery is ground to engine frame and other is connected through the ignition switch to one primary terminal of induction coil. The other primary connection is connected to one end of contact point of circuit breaker and through closed points to ground. The ignition switchis made on and engine is crancked. When the contacts touch, the current flows the battery to the switch.

Define the following related I.C. engine

i) Indicated Power (ip) is defined as the power developed by combustion of fuel in the cylinder of engine. It is always more than brake power. ii Brake Power:-  The useful power which is available at the crank shaft is called as brake power.  It is denoted by “B.P.”  It has unit kW iii) B.S.F.C: It is the weight of fuel required to develop 1KW of the brake power for period of 1 hour. Unit of B.S.F.C is Kg/KWh. It is defined as the amount of fuel consumed per unit of break power developed per hour.

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