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Explain different stages of combustion in C.I. engine with sketch.

1) Ignition delay period : During this fuel has already admitted but has not yer ignited. This is counted from start of injection to the point where P-O curve separates from pure air compression curve. 2) Rapid or uncontrolled combustion : In this stage pressure rise because of during the delay period the fuel droplet have time to spread over a wide area and fresh air around them.

Name the different sensors used in ECU of modern automobile with their application....

Crank angle sensor: A permanent magnet inductive signal generator is mounted in close proximity to the flywheel, where it radiates a magnetic field. As the flywheel spins and the pins are rotated in the magnetic field, an alternating (AC) waveform is delivered to the ECM to indicate speed of rotation.

Air Flow Sensor (AFS): The AFS is normally located between the air filter and the throttle body. As air flows through the sensor, it deflects a vane (flap) which wipes a potentiometer resistance track and so varies the resistance of the track and generates a variable voltage signal.

Draw and explain simple vapour absorption refrigeration system

A Simple Vapor absorption system consists of evaporator, absorber, generator, condenser, expansion valve, pump & reducing valve. In this system ammonia is used as refrigerant and solution is used is aqua ammonia. Strong solution of aqua ammonia contains as much as ammonia as it can and weak solution contains less ammonia. The compressor of vapor compressor system is replaced by an absorber, generator, reducing valve and pump. The heat flow in the system at generator, and work is supplied to pump. Ammonia vapors coming out of evaporator are drawn in absorber.

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