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Draw superimposed p-v diagram of Otto cycle, Diesel cycle and Dual cycle to compare their efficiencies for same compression ratio (R c ) and heat rejection (Q r ).

Superimposed P-V Diagram of Otto, Diesel & Duel Cycle: A comparison of the cycles (Otto, Diesel and Dual) on the p-v and T-s diagrams for the same compression ratio and heat supplied is shown in the Fig. Since all the cycles reject their heat at the same specific volume, process line from state 4 to 1, the quantity of heat rejected from each cycle is represented by the appropriate area under the line 4 to 1 on the T-s diagram. As is evident from the cycle which has the least heat rejected will have the highest efficiency.

Explain battery ignition in S.I. engine.

Battery Ignition system : It consists of a battery of 6 or 12 volts, ignition switch, induction coil, condenser, distributor and a circuit breaker. One terminal of battery is ground to the frame of the engine and other is connected through the ignition switch to one primary terminal of the ignition coil . The other terminal is connected to one end of contact points of the circuit breaker. To start with the ignition switch is made on and the engine is cranked. The contacts touch, the current flows from battery through the switch.

Explain the process of combustion in diesel engine.

Combustion in CI Engines :The combustion in CI engines is taking place in following stages as shown in figure 1. Ignition delay period: During this period, some fuel has been admitted but not yet ignited. The delay period is a sort of preparatory phase. It is counted from the start of injection to the point where P-ɵ curve separates from air compression curve. 2. Rapid or uncontrolled combustion : In this stage , the pressure rises rapid because during the delay period the fuel droplets have time to spray and have fresh air around them.

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