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What are the effects of detonation in I.C. engine ?

Effects of detonation (1) Noise – As intensity of detonation increases, the sound intensity increases & it is harmful. (2) Mechanical damage – shock waves are so violent that it may cause mechanical damage like breaking of piston. It increases the rate of wear erosion of piston. (3) Pre-ignition – Due to local overheating of spark plug & this pre-ignition increases detonation. (4) Power output & efficiency decreases - Power output & thermal efficiency decreases due to abnormal combustion.

What is supercharging ? State advantages of supercharging.

Superchargers are pressure boosting devices (compressors) which increase the pressure of the air before inletting it get into cylinder of the internal combustion engine, and the process of increasing the pressure OR forcing more air to get into engine is called as supercharging. This gives each intake cycle of the engine more oxygen, letting it burn more fuel and do more work, thus increasing power.

Draw turning moment diagram for four stroke petrol engine and explain it in brief.

 

During suction stroke, negative loop is formed as pressure inside engine cylinder is less than atmospheric pressure. During compression stroke, work is done on gases therefore higher negative loop is formed. During expansion or power stroke, fuel burn & gases expand therefore large positive loop is formed & during this stroke we get work output. During exhaust stroke, work is done on the gas to expel it out of cylinder, hence negative loop is formed.

Draw superimposed p-v diagram of Otto cycle, Diesel cycle and Dual cycle to compare their efficiencies for same compression ratio (R c ) and heat rejection (Q r ).

Superimposed P-V Diagram of Otto, Diesel & Duel Cycle: A comparison of the cycles (Otto, Diesel and Dual) on the p-v and T-s diagrams for the same compression ratio and heat supplied is shown in the Fig. Since all the cycles reject their heat at the same specific volume, process line from state 4 to 1, the quantity of heat rejected from each cycle is represented by the appropriate area under the line 4 to 1 on the T-s diagram. As is evident from the cycle which has the least heat rejected will have the highest efficiency.

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