Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle
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i) WBT: Wet bulb Temperature twb : It is the temperature recorded by a thermometer when its bulb is covered by a wet cloth exposed to the air. ii) DPT: Dew point temperature tdp :It is the temperature of air recorded by thermometer, when the moisture (water vapour) present in its, begins to condensed. iii) DBT: Dry Bulb Temperature tdb : It is the temperature of air recorded by ordinary thermometer with a clean, dry sensing element .
Turbo Jet Engine
The air sucked by the compressor is not clean. It contains various types of solid, liquid and gaseous contaminants such as dust, dirt, moisture etc. The presence of contaminants may have high damaging effects such as corrosion, wear and tear on the finely finished mating surfaces of pneumatic components. Air lines may get chocked or damaged. Therefore, purification of air by removing oil, moisture and dust is done to protect the pneumatic system from failure, so that the system should work efficiently.
Brake Power Engine (BP)engine = 16.2 kW Brake Power developed when 1st Cylinder cut-off ( BP )2,3,4 = 11.5 kW Brake Power developed when 2nd Cylinder cut-off ( BP )1,3,4 = 11.6 kW Brake Power developed when 3 rdCylinder cut-off ( BP )1,2,4 = 11.68 kW Brake Power developed when 4 thCylinder cut-off ( BP )1,2,3 = 11.5 kW Indicated Power of 1st cylinder IP1 = (BP)engine - ( BP )2,3,4 = 16.2 – 11.5 = 4.7 kW IP2 = (BP)engine - ( BP )1,3,4 = 16.2 – 11.6 = 4.6 kW IP3 = (BP)engine - ( BP )1,3,4 = 16.2 – 11.68 = 4.52 kW IP4 = (BP)engine - ( BP )1,2,3 = 16.2 – 11.5 = 4.7 kW Indicated Power of Engine
Methods to improve thermal efficiency of gas turbine Regeneration – This is done by preheating the compressed air before entering to the combustion chamber with the turbine exhaust in a heat exchanger, thus saving fuel consumption..
FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE The four stroke-cycles refers to its use in petrol engines, gas engines, light, oil engine and heavy oil engines in which the mixture of air fuel are drawn in the engine cylinder. Since ignition in these engines is due to a spark, therefore they are also called spark ignition engines. In four stroke cycle engine, cycle is completed in two revolutions of crank shaft or four strokes of the piston. Each stroke consists of 1800 of crankshaft rotation. Therefore, the cycle consists of 7200 of crankshaft rotation.
i) Heat Balance Sheet :-The complete record of heat supplied and heat rejected during a certain time(Say one minute)by an IC engine is entered in a tabulated form called as heat balance sheet. i) Heat supplied by the fuel= Mf x C where Mf= mass of fuel supplied in Kg/min C = Lower calorific value of fuel kj/kg