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Define following terms of spring:

(i) Spring rate: The spring rate is defined as the load required per unit deflection of the spring. It is also
known as spring stiffness or spring constant. Mathematically,
Spring rate, k = W / δ
W = Load
δ = Deflection of the spring
(ii) Spring index: The spring index is defined as the ratio of the mean diameter of the coil to the
diameter of the wire. Mathematically,
Spring index, C = D / d
D = Mean diameter of the coil
d = Diameter of the wire

How do you express the life of bearings?

The life of an individual bearing is defined as the total number of revolutions (or the number of hours at a given constant speed) which the bearing can complete before the evidence of fatigue failure develops on the balls or races.  The bearing life can be defined by rating life.  The rating life of a group of apparently identical bearing is defined as the number of revolutions (or the number of hours at a given constant speed) that 90 percent of a group of bearings will complete or exceed before the first evidence of fatigue failure develops. It is also known as L10 life.

Give two applications of knuckle joint.

(i) A knuckle joint is used to connect two rods which are under the action of tensile loads. However, if the joint is guided, the rods may support a compressive load. (ii) Its use may be found in the link of a cycle chain, tie rod joint of roof truss, valve rod joint with eccentric rod, pump rod joint, tension link in bridge structure and lever and rod connections of various types.

Define Ergonomics.

Ergonomics is defined as the scientific study of the man – machine working environment relationship and the application of anatomical, physiological, psychological principles to solve the problems arising from this relationship.


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