The high speed of engines and other machines is a common phenomenon now-a-days. It is, therefore, very essential that all the rotating and reciprocating parts should be completely balanced as far as possible. If these parts are not properly balanced, the dynamic forces are set up.
Function of dynamometer: A dynamometer is a brake but in addition it has a device to measure the frictional resistance. Knowing the frictional resistance, we may obtain the torque transmitted and hence the power of the engine.
Absorption type dynamometers:
1. Prony brake dynamometer, and 2. Rope brake dynamometer.
Transmission type dynamometers
1. Epicyclic-train dynamometer, 2. Belt transmission dynamometer, and 3. Torsion dynamometer.
Applications of flywheel : Used in Internal combustion engines, press machines, mills, punching machines.
The function of a governor is to regulate the mean speed of an engine, when there are variations in the load e.g. when the load on an engine increases, its speed decreases, therefore it becomes necessary to increase the supply of working fluid. On the other hand, when the load on the engine decreases, its speed increases and thus less working fluid is required. The governor automatically controls the supply of working fluid to the engine with the varying load conditions and keeps the mean speed within certain limits.
Conditions for ‘V’ Belt drive selection :
1. Great amount of Power to be transmitted,
2. Requirement of the high velocity ratio (maximum 10).
3. Small Centre distance between the shafts
4. Positive drive requirement
5. Compact Space
Slip of belt : The motion of belts and shafts assuming a firm frictional grip between the belts and the shafts. But sometimes, the frictional grip becomes insufficient. This may cause some forward motion of the driver without carrying the belt with it. This may also cause some forward motion of the belt without carrying the driven pulley with it. This is called slip of the belt and is generally expressed as a percentage.
Motion of the Follower :
1. Uniform velocity, 2. Simple harmonic motion,
3. Uniform acceleration and retardation, and 4. Cycloidal motion.
Each part of a machine, which moves relative to some other part, is known as a kinematic link.
When the kinematic pairs are coupled in such a way that the last link is joined to the first link to transmit definite motion (i.e. completely or successfully constrained motion), it is called a kinematic chain.
Adverse effect of imbalance of rotating elements:
a) Vibration, noise and discomfort,
b) Machine accuracy get disturbed,
c) Power losses,
d) More maintenance
a) Fluctuation of energy -- The difference of maximum and minimum kinetic energy of flywheel is known as Fluctuation of energy
b) Coefficient of fluctuation of energy -- - It is defined as the ratio of the maximum fluctuation of energy to the work done per cycle. It is denoted by ke = (E1 - E2)/work done per cycle