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What is stress concentration? Explain any four methods to reduce it.

Stress Concentration: Whenever a machine component changes the shape of its cross-section, the simple stress distribution no longer holds good and the neighborhood of the discontinuity is different. This irregularity in the stress distribution caused by abrupt changes of form is called stress concentration. It occurs for all kinds of stresses in the presence of fillets, notches, holes, keyways, splines, surface roughness or scratches etc.

What are the steps involved in general design procedure? Explain.

1. Recognition of need. First of all, make a complete statement of the problem, indicating the need, aim or purpose for which the machine is to be designed. 2. Synthesis (Mechanisms). Select the possible mechanism or group of mechanisms which will give the desired motion. 3. Analysis of forces. Find the forces acting on each member of the machine and the energy transmitted by each member. 4. Material selection. Select the material best suited for each member of the machine. 5. Design of elements (Size and Stresses).


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