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State four important modes of gear failure.

Modes of Gear Failure: ANY 4 modes 1. Bending failure. Every gear tooth acts as a cantilever. If the total repetitive dynamic load acting on the gear tooth is greater than the beam strength of the gear tooth, then the gear tooth will fail in bending, 2. Pitting. It is the surface fatigue failure which occurs due to many repetition of Hertz contactstresses. 3. Scoring. The excessive heat is generated when there is an excessive surface pressure, high speed or supply of lubricant fails. 4. Abrasive wear.

State four examples of ergonomic considerations in the design of a lathe machine.

Ergonomics consideration in the design of Lathe machine Any 4 1) The controls on lathe should be easily accessible and properly positioned. 2) the control operation should involve minimum motions. 3) Height of lathe should be match with worker for operation 4)Lathe machine should make less noise during operation. 5) force& power capacity required in turning the wheel as per operation or human being can apply normally. 6) should get required accuracy in operation.

Explain why bolts of uniform strength are preferred. Draw sketches of two different types of bolts of uniform strength

bolts of uniform strength: if a shank reduced to a core shown in fig. the stress become same through out the length of the bolt. Hence impact energy is distributed uniformly throughout the bolt length, thus relieving the threaded portion of high stress. The bolt in this way becomes stronger and lighter. This type of bolt is known as bolt of uniform strength.Another method of obtaining the bolt of uniform strength is shown in this method, instead of reducing the shank axial hole is drilled through the head down to

State two applications each of cotter joint and knuckle joint.

Applications of cotter joint: cotter foundation bolt, big end of the connecting rod of a steam engine, joining piston rod with cross head, joining two rods with a pipe Applications of knuckle joint: link of bicycle chain, tie bar of roof truss, link of suspension bridge, valve mechanism, fulcrum of lever, joint for rail shifting mechanism


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