(i) Applications of maximum shear stress theory : for ductile material , crank shaft, propeller shafts , c frames (ii) Applications of maximum principle normal stress theory : for brittle material , machine spindle, machine beds , c frames, overhang crank
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T= Torque transmitted by the shaft , F= tangential force acting at the circumference of the shaft,
Explain with the help of neat sketches three basic types of lever. State one application of each type.
In the first type of levers, the fulcrum is in between the load and effort. In this case, the effort arm is greater than load arm, therefore M.A. obtained is more than 1 Application: Bell crank levers used in railway signaling arrangement, rocker arm in I.C. Engines , handle of a hand pump, hand wheel of a punching press, beam of a balance, foot lever (any 1) In the second type of levers, the load is in between the fulcrum and effort. In this case, the effort arm is more than the load arm, therefore M.A. is more than 1.
A hollow shaft is required to transmit 50 kW power at 600 rpm. Calculate its inside and outside diameters if its ratio is 0.8. Consider yield strength of material as 380N/mm2 and factor of safety as 4.
Given : P= 50 KW = 50000W Speed = 600rpm k=Di/do = 0.8 σyt= 380 N/mm2 Factor of safety= 4 Design stress σt=σyt/fos =380/4 =95 Shear stress = τ =σt/2 = 95/2 =47.5N/mm2 Torque transmitted by hollow shaft T = P x 60/2πN T = 50000 x 60/2π x600 T = 795.67 N-m T= 795670 Nmm T= π/16 Xτ X do3 (1-k 4 ) 795670 =π/16 X 47.5 X do3 ( 1-0.84 ) Do3=144529.313 Do = 53 mm say 55 mm Di = 0.8X 55 = 44mm
Main considerations in machine design Type of loads and stresses caused by the load: the load on a machine component, may act in several ways, due to which, the internal stresses are set up. Mechanism: the successful operation of any machine depends largely upon the simplest arrangement of the parts, which will give desired motion Selection of material: designer should know the deep knowledge of properties of materials and behavior under working conditions
Draw neat labeled sketches of Acme and square thread profile and state its relative characteristics.
Characteristics of Acme thread : (i)thread angle is 290 (ii) permit the use of split nut (iii)easy to manufacture (iv) max. bursting pressure on the thread Characteristics of Square thread : (i) zero profile thread angle (ii) minimum bursting pressure on the nut
Whenever a machine component changes the shape of its cross section, the simple stress distribution no longer holds good. This irregularity in the stress distribution caused by abrupt changes of form is called as stress concentration