The function of governor is to regulate the mean speed of the engine, when there are variations in the load. Governor automatically adjusts and controls the supply of fuel / working fluid to the engine with the varying load conditions and keeps the mean speed within the certain desired limits. e.g. When the load on an engine increases, its speed decreases, therefore it becomes necessary to increase the supply of fuel or working fluid. The configuration of the governor changes and valve is moved to increase the supply of working fluid. Conversely, when the load on the engine
Fluctuation of speed: It is the difference between the maximum and minimum speed of Flywheel. Fluctuation of speed = (N1 – N2) rpm N1 – maximum speed, N2 -- minimum speed Fluctuation of energy: It is the difference between the maximum and minimum energy of Flywheel. Maximum energy of Flywheel I ω1 2 Minimum energy of Flywheel = I ω2 2 Fluctuation of energy = I (ω1 2 - ω2 2 ) in N-m or J I – moment of inertia of flywheel = mk2 where, m – mass of the flywheel, kg and k - radius of gyration of flywheel, m2 ω1 – Maximum Angular velocity, rad/sec ω2 – Minimum Angular velocity, rad/sec
1. Manufacturing cost of chains is relatively high 2. The chain drive needs accurate mounting and careful maintenance 3. High velocity fluctuations especially when unduly stretched 4. Chain operations are noisy as compared to belts.
1. As no slip takes place, hence, perfect velocity ratio is obtained (Positive drive). 2. Chain drive gives high transmission efficiency (up to 98 %). 3. Chain drive may be used when the distance between the shafts is less. 4. Chain is made up of metal which would occupy less space as compared with belt or rope drive. 5. Ability to transmit power to several shafts by one chain. 6. Load on the shaft is less and long life.
1. According to the surface in contact: Knife-edge follower Roller follower Flat faced or mushroom follower Spherical follower 2. According to the motion of the follower: Reciprocating or translating follower Oscillating or rotating follower 3. According to the path of motion of follower:
Radial follower Off-set followe
a) Single plate clutch b) Multi plate clutch c) Cone clutch d) Centrifugal clutch
ii) Classification of follower:
A single plate clutch, effective on both sides, is required to transmit 25 kW at 3000 rpm. Determine the outer and inner radii of frictional surface, if the co-efficient of friction is 0.255 the ratio of radii is 1.25 and the maximum pressure is not to ex
A simple band brake is operated by lever 40 cm long. The brake drum diameter is 40 cm and brake band embrance 5/8 of its circumference. One end of band is attached to a fulcrum of lever while other end attached to pin 8 cm from fulcrum. The co-efficient o
Simple band brake:
Given: Length of lever l = 40 cm = 0.4m, diameter d = 40 cm = 0.4, µ = 0.25, b =0 .08 m ϴ = Angle of wrap = 5/8 x 360 = 225 x π /180 = 3.93 rad Braking torque = (T1 –T2) x r T1/T2 = e µϴ = e 0.25 x 3.93 = 2.67 Taking moments about fulcrum P x l = b x T1 500 x 0.40 = 0.08 x T1 T1 = 2500 N T2 = 2500 / 2.67 = 936.3 N Braking Torque = (2500 – 936.3) x 0.2 = 312.74 N-m
ii) Turning Moment Diagram:
i) Types of gear trains 1) Simple gear train 2) Compound gear train 2) Epicyclic gear train 4) Inverted gear train Simple gear train. When there is only one gear on each shaft, it is known as simple gear train. The gears are represented by their pitch circles. When the distance between the two shafts is small, the two gears are made to mesh with each other to transmit motion from one shaft to the other Epicyclic gear train: A simple epicyclic gear train is shown in Fig. where a gear A and the arm C have a common axis at O1about which they can rotate.