(i) Industrial and automotive gear boxes. (ii) Electric motors and machine tool spindles. (iii) Small size centrifugal pumps. (iv) Automobile front and rear axles
i) Cylinder head of the engine. (ii) Machine foundation. (iii) Assembly of fan, couplings. Any two examples (iv) Connect two bogies of the train with the turn buckle. (v) Structural bridges, pressure vessels, fly press (vi) Assembly of crank shaft and connecting rod.
(i) Sunk key: Rectangular sunk key, Square sunk key and Parallel sunk key (ii) Gib-head key (iii) Feather key Any four (iv) Woodruff key types of keys (v) Saddle key: Flat saddle key, Hollow saddle key (vi) Tangent key (vii) Round key
The life of an individual bearing is defined as the total number of revolutions (or the number of hours at a given constant speed) which the bearing can complete before the evidence of fatigue failure develops on the balls or races. The bearing life can be defined by rating life. The rating life of a group of apparently identical bearing is defined as the number of revolutions (or the number of hours at a given constant speed) that 90 percent of a group of bearings will complete or exceed before the first evidence of fatigue failure develops. It is also known as L10 life.
(i) A knuckle joint is used to connect two rods which are under the action of tensile loads. However, if the joint is guided, the rods may support a compressive load. (ii) Its use may be found in the link of a cycle chain, tie rod joint of roof truss, valve rod joint with eccentric rod, pump rod joint, tension link in bridge structure and lever and rod connections of various types.
Ergonomics is defined as the scientific study of the man – machine working environment relationship and the application of anatomical, physiological, psychological principles to solve the problems arising from this relationship.
When a machine part is subjected to a constant stress at high temperature for a long period of time, it will undergo a slow and permanent deformation called ‘creep’. This property is considered in designing internal combustion engines, boilers and turbines
(i) Dead or steady load (ii) Live or variable load (iii) Suddenly applied or shock load (iv) Impact load
(i) FeE220: Steel having yield strength of 220 N/mm2 . (ii) 20C8 : Carbon steel containing 0.15 to 0.25 percent (0.2 percent on average) carbon and 0.60 to 0.90 percent (0.80 percent on average) manganese.