Explain working of 4 stroke S.I. engine with neat sketch.
1. Suction stroke: Suction stroke starts when piston is at top dead center and about to move downwards. During suction stroke inlet valve is open and exhaust valve is closed. Due to low pressure created by the motion of the piston towards bottom dead center, the charge consisting of fresh air mixed with the fuel is drawn into cylinder. At the end of suction stroke the inlet valve closes.
2. Compression stroke: During compression stroke, the compression of charge takes place by return stroke of piston, i.e. when piston moves from BDC to TDC. During this stroke both, inlet and exhaust valve remain closed. Charge which is occupied by the whole cylinder volume is compressed up to the clearance volume. Just before completion of compression stroke, a spark is produced by the spark plug and fuel is ignited. Combustion takes place when the piston is almost at TDC.
3. Expansion or power stroke: Piston gets downward thrust by explosion of charge. Due to high pressure of burnt gases, piston moves downwards to the BDC. During expansion stroke both inlet and exhaust valves remains closed. Thus power is obtained by expansion of products of combustion. Therefore it is also called as ‘power stroke’. Both pressure as well as temperature decreases during expansion stroke.
4. Exhaust stroke: At the end of expansion stroke the exhaust valve opens, the inlet valve remains closed and the piston moves from BDC to TDC. During exhaust stroke the burnt gases inside the cylinder are expelled out. The exhaust valve closes at the end of the exhaust stroke but still some residual gases remains in cylinder