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1) Ignition delay period : During this fuel has already admitted but has not yer ignited. This is counted from start of injection to the point where P-O curve separates from pure air compression curve. 2) Rapid or uncontrolled combustion : In this stage pressure rise because of during the delay period the fuel droplet have time to spread over a wide area and fresh air around them.
Crank angle sensor: A permanent magnet inductive signal generator is mounted in close proximity to the flywheel, where it radiates a magnetic field. As the flywheel spins and the pins are rotated in the magnetic field, an alternating (AC) waveform is delivered to the ECM to indicate speed of rotation.
Air Flow Sensor (AFS): The AFS is normally located between the air filter and the throttle body. As air flows through the sensor, it deflects a vane (flap) which wipes a potentiometer resistance track and so varies the resistance of the track and generates a variable voltage signal.
A Simple Vapor absorption system consists of evaporator, absorber, generator, condenser, expansion valve, pump & reducing valve. In this system ammonia is used as refrigerant and solution is used is aqua ammonia. Strong solution of aqua ammonia contains as much as ammonia as it can and weak solution contains less ammonia. The compressor of vapor compressor system is replaced by an absorber, generator, reducing valve and pump. The heat flow in the system at generator, and work is supplied to pump. Ammonia vapors coming out of evaporator are drawn in absorber.
Heating with Dehumidification process : By this process, specific humidity of air decreases and its dry bulb temperature increases. This type of process is suitable for industrial air conditioning where low relative humidity is required. This process is achieved by passing a stream of air over chemicals which have an affinity for water. The process is shown in figure.
The major air pollutants emitted by petrol & diesel engines are CO2, CO, HC, NOx, SO2, smoke & lead vapour. Effect of CO: Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin forming carboy hemoglobin ,which reduces oxygen carrying capacity of blood. This leads to laziness, exhaustion of body & headache. Prolong exposure can even leads to death.