LPC – LOW pressure cylinder HPC – high pressure cylinder CC – combustion chamber T – Turbine ( 2+ 2 marks) The net work of gas turbine cycle may be increased by saving some compression work. This is done by using several stages of compression with inter cooling of air between stages. The air from first stage of compression is cooled in inter cooler approximately to its initial temperature before entering to second stage of compressor.
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Jet Propulsion: This is done by expanding the gas which is at high temperature & pressure through the nozzle so that the gas with very high velocity leaves the nozzle giving thrust in opposite direction. - Principle is based on Newton’s Second & third law of motion. Jet propulsion – Classification (1) Atmospheric jet engines (breathing engine) -Turbojet engine - Turbo prop engines - Ram jet (2) Rocket engine (Non - breathing engine)
The major air pollutants emitted by petrol & diesel engines are CO2, CO, HC, NOx, SO2, smoke & lead vapour. Effect of CO: (1) Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin forming carboy hemoglobin ,which reduces oxygen carrying capacity of blood. (2) This leads to laziness, exhaustion of body & headache. (3) Prolong exposure can even leads to death. (4) It also affects cardiovascular system, thereby causing heart problem Effect of CO2: Causes respiratory disorder & suffocation.
The loud pulsating noise heard within the engine cylinder is known as detonation. The following are the certain factors which causes detonation. (1) The shape of the combustion chamber. (2) The relative position of the sparking plugs in case of petrol engines. (3) The chemical nature of the fuel. (4) The initial temp & pressure of fuel (5) The rate of combustion of that portion of fuel which is the first to ignite. This portion of fuel in heating up , compresses the remaining unburnt fuel, thus producing the condition for auto ignition to occur.