Bharat stage III and IV norms :
Petrol Emission Norms (All figures in g/km) Emission Norm CO HC NOx HC+NOx PM BS-III 2.30 0.20 0.15 --- --- BS-IV 1.00 0.10 0.08 --- --- Diesel Emission Norms (All figures in g/km) Emission Norm CO HC NOx HC+NOx PM BS-III 0.64 --- 0.50 0.56 0.05 BS-IV 0.50 --- 0.25 0.30 0.025
Battery Ignition system : It consists of a battery of 6 or 12 volts, ignition switch, induction coil, condenser, distributor and a circuit breaker. One terminal of battery is ground to the frame of the engine and other is connected through the ignition switch to one primary terminal of the ignition coil . The other terminal is connected to one end of contact points of the circuit breaker. To start with the ignition switch is made on and the engine is cranked. The contacts touch, the current flows from battery through the switch.
Combustion in CI Engines :The combustion in CI engines is taking place in following stages as shown in figure 1. Ignition delay period: During this period, some fuel has been admitted but not yet ignited. The delay period is a sort of preparatory phase. It is counted from the start of injection to the point where P-ɵ curve separates from air compression curve. 2. Rapid or uncontrolled combustion : In this stage , the pressure rises rapid because during the delay period the fuel droplets have time to spray and have fresh air around them.
In two stroke engines , at the end of expansion stroke, combustion chamber is full of products of combustion. This is due to elimination of exhaust stroke like in four stroke engine. Scavenging is the process of clearing the cylinder after the expansion stroke. This is done short duration of time available between end of expansion and start of charging process. Types of scavenging : 1. Uniflow scavenging process 2. Cross scavenging process 3. Loop or reverse scavenging process
Sensor used in IC engines ( Explanation of any one )
A sensor is an input device that provides variable information on an engine function. Examples of sensors include the airflow sensor (AFS), crank angle sensor (CAS), throttle potentiometer sensor (TPS) etc, and these provide data on load, rpm, temperature, throttle opening etc. This data is signaled to the ECM, which then analyses the results and computes an output signal. The output signal is used to actuate an n output device.
Specific humidity : It is defined as the ratio of mass of vapor to the mass of dry air in a given sample of moist air . It is denoted by ω
Open cycle and closed cycle gas turbines Any four differences
The major air pollutants emitted by petrol & diesel engines are CO2, CO, HC, NOx, SO2, smoke & lead vapour. Effect of CO: Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin forming carboy hemoglobin ,which reduces oxygen carrying capacity of blood. This leads to laziness, exhaustion of body & headache. Prolong exposure can even leads to death. It also affects cardiovascular system, thereby causing heart problem Effect of CO2: Causes respiratory disorder & suffocation.