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Differentiate between machine and structure.

Sl. No

All parts / links have relative motion
No relative motion between the links

It transforms the available energy into some useful work
No energy transformations

The kinematic link of a machine may transmit both power and
The member of the structure transmit forces only

State function of clutch. Explain working principle of clutch.

b) Function of the Clutch 1. Function of transmitting the torque from the engine to the drive train. 2. Smoothly deliver the power from the engine to enable smooth vehicle movement. 3. Perform quietly and to reduce drive-related vibration. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF CLUTCH It operates on the principle of friction. When two surfaces are brought in contact and are held against each other due to friction between them, they can be used to transmit power. If one is rotated, then other also rotates. One surface is connected to engine and other to the transmission system of automobile.

Define completely constrained motion and successfully constrained motion with neat sketch. State one example of each.

a) 1. Completely constrained motion: When the motion between a pair is limited to a definite direction irrespective of the direction of force applied, then the motion is said to be a completely constrained motion. For example, the piston and cylinder (in a steam engine) form a pair and the motion of the piston is limited to a definite direction ( will only reciprocate) relative to the cylinder irrespective of the direction of motion of the crank. Examples: 1. The motion of a square bar in a square hole 2. the motion of a shaft with collars at each end in a circular hole,

Why is balancing of rotating parts necessary for high speed engines ?

Reasons for balancing of rotating elements of machine: The balancing of the moving parts both rotating and reciprocating of such machine is having greater importance. Because, if these parts are not balanced properly then the unbalanced dynamic forces can cause serious consequences, which are harmful to the life of the machinery itself, the human beings and all the property around them. These unbalanced forces not only increase the load on the bearings and stresses in various members, but also produces unpleasant and dangerous vibrations in them.

Compare brakes and dynamometers. (any two points)

Compare Brakes & Dynamometers: A dynamometer is a mechanical device used to indirectly measure the power output of a prime mover like an engine or a motor. Examples: hydraulic brake dynamometer, eddy current dynamometer, prony brake dynamometer. A brake is a mechanical device usually found in automobiles that helps in decelerating a vehicle and brings it to a complete stop. Examples: internal expanding shoe brake, single and double shoe brake, simple and differential band brake.

State the function of governor.

The function of a governor is to regulate the mean speed of an engine, when there are variations in the load e.g. when the load on an engine increases, its speed decreases, therefore it becomes necessary to increase the supply of working fluid. On the other hand, when the load on the engine decreases, its speed increases and thus less working fluid is required. The governor automatically controls the supply of working fluid to the engine with the varying load conditions and keeps the mean speed within certain limits

State the function of flywheel in I.C. Engine.

A flywheel used in machines serves as a reservoir, which stores energy during the period when the supply of energy is more than the requirement, and releases it during the period when the requirement of energy is more than the supply. In other words, a flywheel controls the speed variations caused by the fluctuation of the engine turning moment during each cycle of operation.

State the types of chains & sprockets.

Types of Chains & Sprockets: The chains, on the basis of their use, are classified into the following three groups : 1. Hoisting and hauling (or crane) chains, 2. Conveyor (or tractive) chains, and 3. Power transmitting (or driving) chains. Sprockets: 1. Taper lock sprockets 2.Pilot bore sprocket 3.Platewheel sprocket

State law of gearing.

Gearing law (Law of gearing) :

Gearing law states that, "The law of gearing states that the angular velocity ratio of all Gears of a meshed gear system must remain constant also the common normal at the point of contact must pass through the pitch point."

gearing law


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